This notebook contains an excerpt from the Python Programming and Numerical Methods - A Guide for Engineers and Scientists, the content is also available at Berkeley Python Numerical Methods.

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  1. Loops provide a mechanism for code to perform repetitive tasks; that is, iteration.

  2. There are two kinds of loops: for-loops and while-loops.

  3. Loops are important for constructing iterative solutions to problems.

  4. Comprehensions provide another concise way to iterate sequence.


  1. What will the value of y be after the following code is executed?

y = 0
for i in range(1000):
    for j in range(1000):
        if i == j:
            y += 1
  1. Write a function my_max(x) to return the maximum (largest) value in x. Don’t use the built-in Python function max.

  1. Write a function my_n_max(x, n) to return a list consisting of the n largest elements of x. You may use Python’s max function. You may also assume that x is a one-dimensional list with no duplicate entries, and that n is strictly positive integer smaller than the length of x

x = [7, 9, 10, 5, 8, 3, 4, 6, 2, 1]

def my_n_max(x, n):
    # write your function code here
    return out
# Output = [10, 9, 8]
out = my_n_max(x, n)
  1. Let m be a matrix of positive integers. Write a function my_trig_odd_even(m) to return an array q, where q[i, j] = sin (m[i, j]) if m[i, j] is even, and q[i, j] = cos (m[i, j]) if m[i, j] is odd.

  1. Let P be an \(m \times p\) array and Q be a \(p \times n\) array. As you will find later in this book, \(M = P \times Q\) is defined as \(M[i, j] = \sum_{k=1}^{p}P[i, k]\cdot Q[k, j]\). Write a function *my_mat_mult(P, Q) that uses for-loops to compute M, the matrix product of P and Q. Hint: You may need up to three nested for-loops. Do not use the function np.dot.

import numpy as np

def my_mat_mult(P, Q):
    # write your function code here
    return M
# Output:
#  array([[3., 3., 3.],
#        [3., 3., 3.],
#        [3., 3., 3.]])

P = np.ones((3, 3))
my_mat_mult(P, P)
# Output:
# array([[30, 30, 30],
#       [70, 70, 70]])

P = np.array([[1, 2, 3, 4], [5, 6, 7, 8]])
Q = np.array([[1, 1, 1], [2, 2, 2], [3, 3, 3], [4, 4, 4]])
my_mat_mult(P, Q)
  1. The interest, \(i\), on a principle, \(P_0\), is a payment for allowing the bank to use your money. Compound interest is accumulated according to the formula \(P_n = (1 + i)P_{n-1}\), where n is the compounding period, usually in months or years. Write a function my_saving_plan(P0, i, goal) where the output is the number of years it will take \(P_0\) to become goal at \(i\%\) interest compounded annually.

def my_saving_plan(P0, i, goal):
    # write your function code here
    return years
# Output: 15
my_saving_plan(1000, 0.05, 2000)
# Output: 11
my_saving_plan(1000, 0.07, 2000)
# Output: 21
my_saving_plan(500, 0.07, 2000)
  1. Write a function with my_find(M), where output is a list of indices i where M[i] is 1. You may assume that M is a list of only ones and zeros. Do not use the built-in Python function find.

# Output: [0, 2, 3]

M = [1, 0, 1, 1, 0]

  1. Assume you are rolling two six-sided dice, each side having an equal chance of occurring. Write a function my_monopoly_dice(), where the output is the sum of the values of the two dice thrown but with the following extra rule: if the two dice rolls are the same, then another roll is made, and the new sum added to the running total. For example, if the two dice show 3 and 4, then the running total should be 7. If the two dice show 1 and 1, then the running total should be 2 plus the total of another throw. Rolls stop when the dice rolls are different.

  1. A number is prime if it is divisible without remainder only by itself and 1. The number 1 is not prime. Write a function my_is_prime(n), where output is 1 if n is prime and 0 otherwise. Assume that n is a strictly positive integer.

  1. Write a function my_n_primes(n) where primes is a list of the first n primes. Assume that n is a strictly positive integer.

  1. Write a function my_n_fib_primes(n), where the output fib_primes is a list of the first n numbers that are both a Fibonacci number and prime. Note: 1 is not prime. Hint: Do not use the recursive implementation of Fibonacci numbers. A function to compute Fibonacci numbers is presented in Section 6.1. You may use the code freely.

def my_n_fib_primes(n):
    # write your function code here
    return fib_primes
# Output: [3, 5, 13, 89, 233, 1597, 28657, 514229]

# Output: [3, 5, 13]

  1. Write a function my_trig_odd_even(M), where the output \(Q[i, j] = sin (\pi/M[i, j])\) if \(M[i,j]\) is odd, and \(Q[i, j] = cos (\pi/M[i, j])\) if \(M[i, j]\) is even. Assume that M is a two-dimensional array of strictly positive integers.

def my_trig_odd_even(M):
    # write your function code here
    return Q
# Output: [[0.8660, 0.7071], [0.8660, 0.4339]]
M = [[3, 4], [6, 7]]
  1. Let \(C\) be a square connectivity array containing zeros and ones. We say that point \(i\) has a connection to point \(j\) , or \(i\) is connected to \(j\) , if \(C [i , j ] = 1\). Note that connections in this context are one-directional, meaning \(C [i , j]\) is not necessarily the same as \(C [ j , i ]\). For example, think of a one-way street from point A to point B. If A is connected to B, then B is not necessarily connected to A.

Write a function my_connectivity_mat_2_dict(C, names), where C is a connectivity array and names is a list of strings that denote the name of a point. That is, names[i] is the name of the name of the i-th point.

The output variable node should be a dict with the key as the string in names and value is a vector containing the indices, j, such that \(C[i,j] = 1\). In other words, it is a list of points that point i is connected to.

def my_connectivity_mat_2_dict(C, names):
    # write your function code here
    return node
C = [[0, 1, 0, 1], [1, 0, 0, 1], [0, 0, 0, 1], [1, 1, 1, 0]]
names = ['Los Angeles', 'New York', 'Miami', 'Dallas']
# Output: node['Los Angeles'] = [2, 4]
#         node['New York'] = [1, 4]
#         node['Miami'] = [4]
#         node['Dallas'] = [1, 2, 3]

node = my_connectivity_mat_2_dict(C, names)
  1. Turn the list words of lower case characters to upper case using list comprehension.

words = ['test', 'data', 'analyze']

< 5.3 Comprehensions | Contents | 6.0 Recursion >